I admit, I am not fond of crates. I find that too many people use a crate as a replacement to training and socializing. With that, I find they are good as a tool for specific purposes, or left open and used simply as a dog bed. While looking for something else, I found the following information. In the U.S. , the USDA Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Chapter 1, Subchapter A—Animal Welfare– Part 3, Standards, dictates the amount of space needed for a “primary enclosure” for a canine as: measurement of animal nose to tail, plus 6 inches, X measurement of animal nose to tail, plus 6 inches = the required floor space in square inches. To determine the required floor space in square feet, divide the square inches by 144. This is the minimum size for an enclosure for a dog in a laboratory. So, I did a quick calculation for Tornado-dog: 48 inches long tip of nose to tail 48 + 6 = 54 54*54 = 2916 sq inches 2916 ÷ 144 = 20.25 sq feet So, if Tornado-dog was in a research facility being experimented on, he would be required by law to be in a 20.25 sq foot enclosure AT MINIMUM for the bulk of his time. Then I looked at the common crate sizing recommendations and calculated those measurements. According to the instructions, this measurement is the recommended length for a crate for the dog. Tornado-dog's measurements are: Tip of nose to tip of tail = 48 inches Tip of nose to base of tail = 34 inches Tip of nose to base of tail plus 1/2 length of front leg from armpit to toe = 42.5 So, then I looked at the common crate square footage of crates within those recommended lengths: 36 inch crate (the smallest recommended for Tornado-dog according to his length measurement): 36 * 23 = 828 sq inches ÷ 144 = 5.75 sq feet 42 inch crate (the size recommended based on his weight of 50lbs): 42 * 28 = 1176 sq inches ÷ 144 = 8.167 sq feet 48 inch crate (the size meeting the largest "how to size a crate" calculation): 48 * 30 = 1440 sq inches ÷ 144 = 10.00 sq feet 54 inch crate (the size based on the USDA measurement for the dog's length): 54 * 37 = 1998 sq inches ÷ 144 = 13.875 sq feet Now here is the kicker. The 36 inch crate is only 28.4% of the USDA requirement. The 42 inch crate is only 40.3% of the USDA requirement. The 48 inch crate is only 49.5% of the USDA requirement. And the 54 inch crate is only 68.5% of the USDA requirement. In addition, the 48 inch crate is recommended for breeds like GSD, akita and newfie and the 54 inch crate is recommended for breeds like great dane, st bernard, and mastiff. The 42 inch crate is recommended for a border collie which is the breed I would consider as equal to Tornado-dog's size. So, for folks considering crate training and planning on crating their dog throughout the night and whenever they are away (not to mention potentially feeding the dog in the crate, separating the dog from visitors or kids or human mealtimes by using the crate), really think about it. Consider alternatives to crating your dog. Using baby gates to limit the dog's access to people food or visitors accomplishes the same thing but allows your dog to have free and full movement. Confining a puppy to a single room with a hard floor surface during the night with a comfy dog bed will prevent it from peeing or pooping behind the living room couch or chewing the tv cords just as well as a crate. If you do choose to use a crate for training, use it with the intention of eliminating it as a confinement as much as possible. So if you choose to crate the puppy/dog in your bedroom to teach it to sleep there instead of on your bed, once he has become used to sleeping there, remove the door and continue training him to stay there throughout the night. (I actually taught my prior dogs to remain on my bed throughout the night - only when they were sick or were older with incontinence did they get off the bed during the night, and that movement woke me up to the problem). And if you choose to crate your dog for multiple reasons (nighttime, feeding, visitors, etc), make a daily log and actually identify how much time the dog spends IN the crate. Consider this scenario: I only crate him without breaks during the night. I work 8 hours and am 15 minutes from the job. During the day when I'm at work, he gets three potty and exercise breaks. When I get home I take him out and he only gets crated during my dinnertime. Now do the math: I take him out to potty at 6 am, I put him in his crate at 6:35 am while I shower and dress, I take him back out to potty at 7:20 am and put him back in the crate at 7:45 am when I leave for work. At 10:00, the neighbor takes him outside for a 30 minute potty break, at 10:30 am he is placed back in the crate. At noon, I come home from work and let him out to potty and play. At 12:50 pm, I put in back in the crate and go back to work. At 2:30, the neighbor returnes and takes him out to potty. At 2:45 pm, he is put back in the crate. At 5:20, I return home and take him out to potty and play and do some training. At 7:00, I put him in the crate while I fix and eat dinner. At 8:00 pm, I take him out and he potties and plays and we relax on the couch. At 10:30 pm, I put him in the crate for the night. That actually ends up to 17.25 hours of actual crate time per a 24 hour day. In a cage deemed too small for a dog used for laboratory experiments.